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Journal and News Scan

Source: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Author(s): Niv Ad, Sari D. Holmes, Linda Halpin, R.N., Deborah J. Shuman, Casey E. Miller, Deborah Lamont
This article examined the impact of gait speed, as a marker of frailty, on surgical outcomes in a group of 167 cardiac patients aged 65 years or older. The authors concluded that there was no relation between gait speed and outcome. 
Source: New York Times
A hospital has agreed to pay a $2.2 million penalty for permitting the video-taping of two patients who did not consent to the filming. U.S. Federal regulators have also used the opportunity to clarify stipulations governing the filming of patients.   
Source: J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
Author(s): Paparella D, Di Mauro M, Bitton Worms K, Bolotin G, Russo C, Trunfio S, Scrofani R, Antona C, Actis Dato G, Casabona R, Colli A, Gerosa G, Renzulli A, Serraino F, Scrascia G, Zaccaria S, De Bonis M, Taramasso M, Delgado L, Tritto F, Marmo J, Parolari A, Myaseodova V, Villa E, Troise G, Nicolini F, Gherli T, Whitlock R, Conte M, Barili F, Gelsomino S, Lorusso R, Sciatti E, Marinelli D, Di Giammarco G, Calafiore AM, Sheikh A, Alfonso JJ, Glauber M, Miceli A; GIROC Investigators.
In a large multi-center, propensity-matched study, Paparella et al found that antiplatelet therapy as opposed to oral anticoagulation therapy initiated after mitral valve repair as antithrombotic prophylaxis caused significantly less major bleeding, which also caused mortality to be less by a 5-fold than with anticoagulation therapy. 
Source: The New England Journal of Medicine
Author(s): Guyton RA, Smith LA
An editorial discussion of the impressive 10-year benefits of CABG for ischemic cardiomyopathy as found in the STICH trial.
Source: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Marco Ranucci, MD, Valeria Pistuddi, Ekaterina Baryshnikova, PhD (Biol), Dionisio Colella, MD, Paolo Bianchi, MD
These authors analyzed retrospectively the effect of postoperative fibrinogen level on bleeding after heart surgery in their database of 2,800 patients.   They found that serum fibrinogen levels lower than 220 mg/dl more than doubled the risk of postoperative bleeding.   Is it time to standardize the measurement of postop fibrinogen in cardiac surgery?
Source: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Francesca Fiorentino, John Stickley, Dan Dorobantu, Ragini Pandey, Gianni Angelini, David Barron, Serban Stoica
Results of an audit of the National Congenital Heart Disease database were evaluted to determine characteristics of patients undergoing reoperation within 30 days of their primary procedure.  Among over 18,000 patients, 3.5% had early reoperations.  The reoperations were most commonly arterial shunt, PA band, and VSD procedures.  60 day mortality was 5-fold higher than among patients who did not have an early reoperation. 
Source: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Meyeon Park, Michael G. Shlipak, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Amit X. Garg, Jay L. Koyner, Steven G. Coca, Chirag R. Parikh, for the Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints in Acute Kidney Injury (TRIBE-AKI) Consortium
The association of acute kidney injury (AKI) with adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery is well known.  This study compared the association of AKI and the elevation of cystatin C, another filtration marker, with long-term survival after cardiac surgery.  30% of patients experienced an abnormal increase in creatinine postop compared to 15% who had an abnormal rise in cystatin C.  A rise in  cystatin C was better predictive of decreased long-term survival than was creatinine.
Source: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Ben M. Swinkels, Bas A. de Mol, Johannes C. Kelder, Freddy E. Vermeulen, Jurriën M. ten Berg
The authors used a single institution data base to assess very long-term outcomes after AVR to determine the effects of prosthesis-patient mismatch.  Among 673 pts, 24% had mismatch.  Mean follow-up was nearly 18 years.  On multivariable analysis, mismatch was not a significant determinant of long-term survival.
Source: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Jonathan D. Spicer, Brendon M. Stiles, Monisha Sudarshan, Arlene M. Correa, Lorenzo E. Ferri, Nasser K. Altorki, Wayne L. Hofstetter
Whether adding radiotherapy to induction chemotherapy prior to esophagectomy adds a survival benefit is uncertain.  The authors assessed outcomes of 214 patients with T3N1M0 adenocarcinoma among three institutions who underwent induction therapy followed by esophagectomy.   114 patients had chemotherapy and 100 patients had chemoradiotherapy.  90-day mortality did not differ between the groups (5.3% vs 4.0%), and median survival between the groups was similar (31.2 vs 39.2 months).  The role of radiotherapy as part of induction therapy for management of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus requires further exploration.
Source: Scientific Reports
Author(s): Lin LY, Liao CW, Wang CH, Chi NH, Yu HY, Chou NK, Hwang JJ, Lin JL, Chiang FT, Chen YS.
ECMO is widely used for cardiogenic shock treatment.  Since peripheral V-A ECMO will increase LV afterload and IABP therapy can counterbalance it, will IABP combined with ECMO improve the outcomes? A total of 529 patients (227 ECMO alone and 302 combined IABP plus ECMO) were included.  Compared with ECMO alone, combined IABP and ECMO treatment did not improve outcomes.  Limitation: this is an observational cohort study, large scale randomized controlled standardized trial is needed.