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Journal and News Scan

Source: Thorax
Author(s): R Bhatnagar, ED Reid, JP Corcoran, JD Bagenal, S Pope, AO Clive, N Zahan-Evans, PO Froeschle, D West, NM Rahman, S Chatterji, PR Sivasothy, NA Maskell

This multcenter UK review identified 57 patients who underwent indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) insertion for benign causes, primarily hepatic hydrothorax and non-infectious pleuritis.  Infection occurred in 3.5% and successful pleurodesis was achieved in 33% at a median of 71 days.  Hepatic hydrothorax was associated with a much lower rate of pleurodesis.

Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia
Author(s): McNair E, McKay W, Qureshi AM, Rosin M, Gamble J, Dalshaug G, Mycyk T, Prasad K

This article compares 2 methods of residual blood treatment after cardiopulmonary bypass. Multipass hemoconcentration led to higher concentrations of platelets and fibrinogen when compared with centrifugation. Clinical outcomes - weight gain, use of vaso-active agents - were reduced in the hemoconcentration group. Further investigation into methods of treatment of residual blood is warranted.

Source: Annals of Surgery
Author(s): Mattar, Samer G; Alseidi, Adnan A; Jones, Daniel B; Jeyarajah, D. Rohan; Swanstrom, Lee L; Aye, Ralph W; Wexner, Steven D; Martinez, José M; Ross, Sharona B; Awad, Michael M; Franklin, Morris E; Arregui, Maurice E; Schirmer, Bruce D; Minter, Rebecca M

This study examines whether graduating general surgery residents are adequately prepared for fellowship with implications for work hour restrictions.

Source: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Author(s): H Nishikawa, T Oto, S Otani, M Harada, N Iga, K Miyoshi, S Miyoshi.

This experimental study in swine investigated the feasibility of using the right and left upper lobes to perform a left unilateral lung transplant.  They found the technique is feasible and may permit use of bilateral upper lobes in donors whose lungs were rejected because of isolated lower lobe issues.

Source: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Author(s): NC Cavarocchi, HT Pitcher, Q Yang, P Karbowski, J Miessau, HM Hastings, H Hirose

The authors studied outcomes of using a standard algorithm for weaning venoarterial ECMO using continuous transesophageal echo that employed a miniature probe.  6 of 21 pts had RV and LV recovery, 7 had nonrecoverable LV and RV function, and 8 had RV recovery without LV recovery and underwent LVAD.  RV function was maintained in the latter 8 pts.  The positive predictive value for ventricular recovery was 100% using echo monitoring. 

Source: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Author(s): Q Chang, C Tian, Y Wei, X Qian, X Sun, C Yu

Outcomes of 21 pts undergoing hybrid total arch repair without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for Type A dissection were reviewed.  1 and 12 month survival rates were 95% and 90%.  There was no evidence for caudal migration of the endograft, and only one patient experienced a type I endoleak that was corrected surgically.  No late rupture or paraplegia occurred. 

Source: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Author(s): PP Drury, AJ Gunn, L Bennet, A Ganeshalingham, K Finucane, D Buckley, J Beca

This study compared short periods of deep hypothermic arrest to bypass alone in 18 infants undergoing arterial switch to assess neurophysiologic outcomes and white matter injury.  Deep hypothermic arrest was associated with reduced oxygen extraction and transient EEG suppression but there was no difference between the groups in white matter injury.     

Source: JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
Author(s): Della Corte A, Bancone C, Buonocore M, Dialetto G, Covino FE, Manduca S, Scognamiglio G, D'Oria V, De Feo M.

Interesting retrospective study evaluating the risk factors affecting the progression of ascending aorta dilatation in 133 patients with bicuspid aortic valve, focusing on aortic morphology and cusp fusion pattern. Dilatation at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva rather than no dilatation or dilatation confined to the ascending aorta appears to be a marker of more rapid progression.

Source: American Heart Association
Author(s): Dr Michael Acker

The trial was a randomised, prospective, non-blinded, multi-institutional study of patients undergoing surgery for severe ischaemic mitral regurgitation with or without coronary revascularisation,” Dr Acker reported. A total of 251 patients were recruited, with approximately half undergoing mitral valve repair and half undergoing replacement. While there was no difference in efficacy or main safety outcomes, there was a difference in the percentage of patients experiencing a recurrence of IMR - 32.6% in the repair group versus 2.3% in the replacement group (p<0.001).

Source: JAMA Internal Medicine
Author(s): Edward F. Patz Jr; Paul Pinsky; Constantine Gatsonis; JoRean D. Sicks; Barnett S. Kramer; Martin C. Tammemägi; Caroline Chiles; William C. Black; Denise R. Aberle; for the NLST Overdiagnosis Manuscript Writing Team

This study examined the rate of overdiagnosis (detection rate of indolent tumors) of lung cancer in the NLST.  They found that 18% of all lung cancers detected were of the indolent type, and nearly 79% of the bronchioalveolar cancers were likely indolent.