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Journal and News Scan

Source: Thorax
Author(s): HJ Kang, B Hwangbo, G-K Lee, B-H Nam, H-S Lee, MS Kim, JM Lee, JI Z, HS Lee, J-Y Han

This randomized trial included 148 pts with potentially resectable NSLCL.  Mediastinal staging was randomized to EBUS-centered (EBUS possibly followed by EUS) or EUS-centered (EUS possibly followed by EBUS).  Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were similar for both groups.  Adding EBUS after initial EUS improved accuracy and sensitivity significantly, whereas adding EUS after initial EBUS did not significantly improve outcomes.  The authors suggest that EBUS is the best first procedure in endoscopic mediastinal staging for potentially resectable lung cancer.

Source: Thorax
Author(s): M Luchtenborg, SP Riaz, E Lim, R Page, DR Baldwin, E Jakobsen, P Vedsted, M Lind, MD Peake, A Mellemgaard, J Spicer, L Lang-Lazdunski, H Moller

Of nearly 360,000 pts in England diagnosed with a first primary lung cancer, outcomes were assessed for 465 patients who underwent resection for small cell cancer.  5-year survival was 45% for resected NSCLC, 31% for resected SCLC, and was 3% for patients who didn't have resection.  Survival was better for patients who had a resection for known SCLC compared to those whose histologic diagnosis wasn't made until after surgery.  The authors conclude that resection should be offered to selected patients with SCLC. 

Source: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Author(s): Weronica E. Ek, David M. Levine, Mauro D’Amato, Nancy L. Pedersen, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Francesca Bresso, Lynn E. Onstad, Peter T. Schmidt, Hans Törnblom, Helena Nordenstedt, Yvonne Romero, Wong-Ho Chow, Liam J. Murray, Marilie D. Gammon, Geoffrey Liu, Leslie Bernstein, Alan G. Casson, Harvey A. Risch, Nicholas J. Shaheen, Nigel C. Bird, Brian J. Reid, Douglas A. Corley, Laura J. Hardie, Weimin Ye, Anna H. Wu, Marco Zucchelli, Tim D. Spector, Pirro Hysi, Thomas L. Vaughan, David C. Whiteman, Stuart MacGregor

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett’s esophagus. Adenocarcinoma also may develop from Barrett’s esophagus. This multi-institutional study compares genome-wide association data to investigate the genetic architecture of esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett’s esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux. A high genetic correlation was found between esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett’s esophagus with significant polygenic overlap, which suggest that shared genes underlie the development of both lesions. On the contrary, no statistically significant results were obtained for gastroesophageal reflux.

Source: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Author(s): Huang G, Schaff HV, Sundt TM, Rahimtoola SH.

In this manuscript the authors propose a strategy for the treatment of obstructive thrombosis of prosthetic heart valves based on a review of 30 studies published over a 17-year period. They suggest indications for thrombolysis and surgery in right and left sided prosthetic heart valve thrombosis.

Source: New England Journal of Medicine
Author(s): O. Fröbert and Others

This randomized controlled trial evaluated routine mural thrombus aspiration followed by PCI to PCI alone in 7,244 pts with STEMI undergoing PCI.  Thrombus aspiration did not significantly decrease mortality, recurrent MI, or stent thrombosis. Stroke and neurologic complication rates were similar between the groups.   

Source: JACC Cardiovascular Interventions
Author(s): Michael Mok; Luis Nombela-Franco; Eric Dumont; Marina Urena; Robert DeLarochellière; Daniel Doyle; Jacques Villeneuve; Mélanie Côté; Henrique B. Ribeiro; Ricardo Allende; Jerôme Laflamme; Hugo DeLarochellière; Louis Laflamme; Ignacio Amat-Santos; Philippe Pibarot; François Maltais; Josep Rodés-Cabau

This study evaluated the effects of COPD on outcomes after TAVI in 319 pts, 30% of whom had COPD. COPD pts had a lower survival rate at 1 yr (71% vs 85%) and experienced less improvement in functional status. Cumulative mortality was predicted by the 6 min walk test, and periprocedural pulmonary complications were predicted by FEV1. TAVI was deemed futile in 40% of COPD pts.

Source: JACC Cardiovascular Interventions
Author(s): Gabriele Crimi; Silvia Pica; Claudia Raineri; Ezio Bramucci; Gaetano M. De Ferrari; Catherine Klersy; Marco Ferlini; Barbara Marinoni; Alessandra Repetto; Maurizio Romeo; Vittorio Rosti; Margherita Massa; Arturo Raisaro; Sergio Leonardi; Paolo Rubartelli; Luigi Oltrona Visconti; Maurizio Ferrario

In this randomized trial involving 100 pts requiring PCI for STEMI and occluded LAD, half received lower extremity preconditioning for 3 cycles of 5min/5min ischemia/reperfusion. Preconditioning reduced enzymatic infarct size, reduced myocardial edema, and provided greater improvement in ST segment resolution.

Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology
Author(s): Kazuki Sudo, Takashi Taketa, Arlene M. Correa, Maria-Claudia Campagna, Ropma Wadhwa, Mariela A. Blum, Ritsuko Komaki, Jeffrey H. Lee, Manoop S. Bhutani, Brian Weston, Heath D. Skinner, Dipen M. Maru, David C. Rice, Stephen G. Swisher, Wayne L. Hofstetter, Jafar A. Ajani

This single institution restrospective review examined outcomes of treatment for loco-regional recurrence after definitive trimodality therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, resection) for esophageal adenocarcinoma.  Isolated local recurrence developed in 27 patients (5%), most within 3 years.  Median overall survival of those with loco-regional recurrence was 17 mos, with a poor response to additional therapy.  These data suggest that intense post-treatment surveillance programs aimed at early detection of loco-regional recurrence may not provide much benefit. 

Source: Cancer Discovery
Author(s): Nadine S. Jahchan, Joel T. Dudley, Pawel K. Mazur, Natasha Flores, Dian Yang, Alec Palmerton, Anne-Flore Zmoos, Dedeepya Vaka, Kim Q.T. Tran, Margaret Zhou, Karolina Krasinska, Jonathan W. Riess, Joel W. Neal, Purvesh Khatri, Kwon S. Park, Atul J. Butte and Julien Sage

This study found that tricyclic antidepressants like Imipramine, used to treat major depression and Promethazine used as an antiemetic and antihistaminic, induce apoptosis in both chemonaïve and chemoresistant SCLC cells in culture,v and in mouse and human SCLC tumors transplanted into immunocompromised mice. The relevance of this work is based on the power of bioinformatics to find new drugs to treat SCLC. The authors used gene expression microarrays to know how expression levels change in SCLC compared to normal lung cells. They found a gene expression signature for SCLC by using publically available gene expression data from FDA-approved drugs. Tricyclic antidepressants had a similar signature to previous chemotherapy agents, which suggested their ability to antagonize SCLC growth.

Source: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Author(s): Javariah Siddiqui, Christian P. Brizard, John C. Galati, Ajay J. Iyengar, Darren Hutchinson, Igor E. Konstantinov, Gavin R. Wheaton, James M. Ramsay, Yves d’Udekem

This interesting retrospective study compared the long-term results of surgical valvuloplasty and balloon valvuloplasty for congenital aortic stenosis in neonates and infants. During the study period, 86 patients underwent surgical valvuloplasty and 37 patients had a balloon valvuloplasty as first intervention. The two most important factors adversely related to long-term outcomes (including re-stenosis, re-intervention, and regurgitation) on multivariate analysis were having a balloon valvuloplasty as first procedure and undergoing initial treatment as a neonate. Freedom from reintervention at 10 years with surgery was 55% for neonates and 78% for infants. On the contrary, freedom from reintervention at 8 years with balloon valvuloplasty was 15% for neonates and 40% for infants. The authors concluded that despite the retrospective nature of this analysis (and the possibility of bias), surgical valvuloplasty is associated with better long-term outcomes than balloon valvuloplasty.