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Transcatheter heart valve failure: a systematic review.
In this open-access article, the authors describe their findings in a systematic review of transcatheter heart valve (THV) failures, comprising 70 articles and 87 individual cases. Unusual complications such as late embolization (mostly into the left ventricle) and prosthetic compression (exclusively in balloon expandable THVs) are described. Structural valve deterioration is reported in 13 cases, the most common cause being severe leaflet calcification. THV thrombosis has been documented in 10 publications comprising 15 patients (14 balloon expandable THV). The authors conclude that THV appear to be susceptible to failure modes both similar to those of surgical bioprosthetic valves and unique to the specific design features of THVs.