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Journal and News Scan

Source: SCTS Ionescu University 2014
Author(s): One of a series of lectures from the Ionescu SCTS University available for free at http://173.45.225.219/categories/scts-edinburgh-2104

This lecture documents the lack of conclusive evidence for LA appendage occlusion. 

This is one of a series of lectures given on management of the Left Atrial appendage at the SCTS University 2014 so click below to see several others including talks by many eminent speakers including Jim Cox 

 

http://173.45.225.219/categories/scts-edinburgh-2104

 

 

Source: New England Journal of Medicine
Author(s): William D. Chey, Lynn Webster, Mark Sostek, Jaakko Lappalainen, Peter N. Barker, and Jan Tack

In two double blind trials involving nearly 1400 pts being treated with opiods for non-cancer pain and experiencing constipation, oral naloxegol was compared to placebo with the primary outcome being spontaneous bowel activity.  Naloxegol was superior to placebo overall and in the subgroup of patients who had failed to respond to laxatives.  Pain scores did not differ, indicating that the oral opiod receptor antagonist did not interfere with pain management.

Source: Annals of Oncology
Author(s): M. Soares, A-C Toffart, J-F Timsit, G. Burghi, C. Irrazábal, N. Pattison, E. Tobar, B. F. C. Almeida, U. V. A. Silva, L. C. P. Azevedo, A. Rabbat, C. Lamer, A. Parrot, V. C. Souza-Dantas, F. Wallet, F. Blot, G. Bourdin, C. Piras, J. Delemazure, M. Durand, D. Tejera, J. I. F. Salluh, and E. Azoulay for the Lung Cancer in Critical Care (LUCCA) Study Investigators

This multicenter prospective study evaluated indications for and outcomes of ICU admission for 449 patients with lung cancer.  Most patients had a newly diagnosed lung cancer, and the most common indication for ICU admission was airway compromise.  Hospital and 6-month mortality rates were 39% and 55%.  Determinants of mortality were severity of organ system dysfunction, recurrent or progressive cancer, poor performance status, and cancer-related complications. Mortality was lower in high volume centers.

Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Author(s): Papadopoulos N, Schiller N, Fichtlscherer S, Lehmann R, Weber C, Moritz A, Doss M, Zierer A

This single-centre propensity matched study aimed to compare the outcomes between patients undergoing transapical TAVI or surgical aortic valve replacement in patients who have previously undergone cardiac surgery. Patients who underwent procedures between 2005 and 2012 were included with 40 patients in each group following propensity matching. The majority of patients in both the redo TAVI and redo surgical AVR group had previously undergone CABG. Post-operative permanent neurological defect was more common in the redo surgical AVR group with a trend towards lower 30-day mortality in the redo TAVI group. At four years follow up there was no difference in overall survival between the groups but there was a statistically significant difference in major adverse events which was driven by the rate of permanent neurological deficit in the redo surgical AVR group. The incidence of mild/moderate paravalvular leak in the redo TAVI group was 33%.

Source: Circulation
Author(s): Shahian DM, He X, O'Brien S, Grover FL, Jacobs JP, Edwards FH, Welke KF, Suter LG, Drye E, Shewan CM, Han L, Peterson ED

This registry study which links Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) data with Medicare data examined the rates and predictors of readmission within 30-days of coronary artery surgery. The median readmission rate across 846 hospitals was 16.8%. Predictors of readmission within 30-days of surgery were dialysis, chronic lung disease, creatinine, insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity in women, female gender, immunosupression, pre-operative atrial fibrillation, age, recent MI and low body surface area in men. The c-index for the developed model was 0.648 with 6.1% of hospitals having statistcially worse or better readmission rates than expected.

Source: European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Author(s): Yutaka Iba, Kenji Minatoya, Hitoshi Matsuda, Hiroaki Sasaki, Hiroshi Tanaka, Tatsuya Oda and Junjiro Kobayashi

The retrospective study compared 143 patients who underwent open aortic repair and 50 patients with hybrid thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for non-dissecting aortic arch aneurysms. Patients with hybrid TEVAR recovered earlier from surgery, however, 3-year rates of freedom from reintervention were 80% in this group compared to 99% in the open group and (P < 0.001).

Source: European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Author(s): María Teresa Gómez, Marcelo Fernando Jiménez, José Luis Aranda, María Rodríguez, Nuria María Novoa and Gonzalo Varela

Bilobectomy and right lobectomy were compared in a retrospective case-control study with 117 matched pairs. Space-mismatch related complications were not more frequent following bilobectomy, however, the rate of cardiovascular events was higher after lower and middle lobectomy compared with lower lobectomy.

Source: Multimedia Manual of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Author(s): Andre Brooks

Author presents a detailed step-by-step approach to Systemic-AP shunt construction in infants via median sternotomy, which offers advantages of preservation of subclavian artery, ease of construction and, perhaps more importantly, ease of takedown. In spite of decreasing annual incidence of this procedure as a result of a change of towards definitive repair whenever possible, it should be still regarded as a very useful procedure in patients who need a reliable source of pulmonary blood flow until such a time when definitive repair may be safely done.
Many thanks,
 

Source: Multimedia Manual of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Author(s): Marco Di Eusanio, Giacomo Murana, Mariano Cefarelli, Alessandro Mazzola, and Roberto Di Bartolomeo. http://mmcts.oxfordjournals.org/content/2014/mmu010.full

This well documented report analyses different techniques for  Bentall procedures performed using biological valved conduit, which have dramatically expanded mainly due to the increased incidence of aortic disease in the aging population, many patients not being amenable to aortic valve repair. Authors offer detailed, well documented  description of techniques to be used when performing this procedure with  Medtronic Freestyle Root Vascutek BioValsalva graft, Sorin Mitroflow Valsalva graft, and so-called hand-sewn biological composite graft.
 

Source: Journal of Diabetes
Author(s): Yi-cheng Wu, Ting-wei Su, Jian-feng Zhang, Wei-feng Shen, Guang Ning and Ye Kong

Coronary artery bypass grafting versus drug-eluting stents in patients with severe coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Journal of Diabetes, 06/11/2014  Evidence Based Medicine  Review Article

The authors performed a comprehensive meta–analysis to evaluate the comparative benefits of coronary artery bypass grafting versus drug–eluting stents in patients with diabetes mellitus and severe coronary artery disease. For patients with diabetes mellitus and severe coronary artery disease, CABG was superior to DES in that it significantly improve overall and MACCE–free survival rate and reduce incidences of myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization in the long–term follow–up, although it was associated with more perioperative risks and a higher incidence of stroke. Therefore, CABG should remain the gold standard for these patients.

Methods

  • A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, and ScienceDirect was carried out.
  • References and cited papers of relevant articles were also checked.

 

Results

  • A total of 4 randomized controlled trials, 2 prospective registries and 11 retrospective studies were identified for this review.
  • Pooled analysis demonstrated that DES was associated with lower all-cause mortality at 30-day.
  • However, there was no significant difference between CABG and DES in mortality at 12-month and at maximum follow-up, DES was associated with lower overall and MACCE-free survival rate, higher incidences of myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization.
  • CABG was associated with an increased risk of stroke.

 

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