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Journal and News Scan

Source: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Andras P Durko, Stuart J Head, Philippe Pibaro,t Pavan Atluri, Vinayak Bapat, Duke E Cameron, Filip P A Casselman, Edward P Chen, Gry Dahle, Tjark Ebels, John A Elefteriades, Patrizio Lancellotti, Richard L Prager, Raphael Rosenhek, Alan Speir, Marco Stijnen, Giordano Tasca, Ajit Yoganathan, Thomas Walther, Ruggero De Paulis (Task Force Chairman), EACTS–STS–AATS Valve Labelling Task Force

This position paper written by the EACTS, STS, and AATS Valve Labeling Task Force focuses on problems around sizing and labeling of various prosthetic valves. The authors provide information on European and international regulations and use of standards in prosthetic heart valve labeling, characteristics of surgical prosthetic heart valve design, and their hemodynamic performance and thrombogenicity. This first paper from the task force reviews current practices and identifies where improvements are necessary.

Source: JAMA
Author(s): Chetan P. Huded, E. Murat Tuzcu, Amar Krishnaswamy, Stephanie L. Mick, Neal S. Kleiman, Lars G. Svensson, John Carroll, Vinod H. Thourani, Ajay J. Kirtane, Pratik Manandhar, Andrzej S. Kosinski, Sreekanth Vemulapalli, Samir R. Kapadia

This large review of over 100,000 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement demonstrated a stroke rate of 2.3% within 30 days of the procedure, and no decrease in the rate between 2011 and 2015.

Source: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Author(s): Alice Le Huu, Susan Y. Green, Joseph S. Coselli

Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair began in Houston, Texas, with  pioneer surgeons such as Drs Michael E. DeBakey, Denton A. Cooley, and E. Stanley Crawford. Their early attempts to repair TAAA were complicated by risk of renal and spinal cord ischemia and difficulty in reattaching the branching vessels of the thoracoabdominal aorta. This article delves into this history and the work being done at the current forefront of TAAA repair.

Source: The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Author(s): Barbara Christine Weckler, Natalie Baldes, Joachim Schirren

To evaluate the benefit of multimodality treatment for patients with limited disease small-cell lung cancer, Weckler and colleagues retrospectively reviewed outcomes for 47 patients treated at their institution between 1999 and 2016. Patients had undergone primary tumor resection and systematic lymph node dissection combined with chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, or thoracic radiotherapy, and all patients were treated with curative intent. Overall median survival was 56 months, and R0 resection was the only significant prognostic factor for survival. The authors conclude that multimodality treatment was safe, and that R0 resection was achievable with a low risk of locoregional relapse.

Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Jeremiah R. Brown, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Christine A. Goodrich, Andrew R. Bohm, Shama S. Alam, Steven G. Coca, Eric McArthur, Amit X. Garg, Chirag R. Parikh
Given that acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a risk factor for readmission, Brown and colleagues sought to determine whether urinary biomarkers were better at predicting readmission within 30 days that duration of AKI during the index admission. Using data from patients enrolled in the Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints-AKI trial, preoperative and postoperative levels of interleukin-18, neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, liver-fatty-acid-binding protein, cystatin C, microalbumin, creatinine, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio were compared with the total number of days that AKI was present during the initial hospitalization. AKI duration of 3 to 6 days was associated with 30-day readmission or death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.82%; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 - 3.05), while urinary biomarkers had no association with readmission and death.
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation
Author(s): Edward Litton, Frances Bass, Cheryl Dickson, Graham Hillis, Deborah Inskip, Theresa Jacques, David McGiffin, Shay McGuiness, Jennene Miller, Rachael Parke, Hugh Playford, Chris Reid, Julian Smith, Noah Solman, Lavinia Tran, Elizabeth Yarad, Anthony Delaney, on behalf of the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group

An intresting pilot that was stopped due to underrecruitment. Commendable mortality in high-risk coronary artery bypass grafting.

Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Author(s): Arnar Geirsson, Arnar Geirsson, Kayoko Shioda, Christian Olsson, Anders Ahlsson, Jarmo Gunn, Emma C. Hansson, Vibeke Hjortdal, Anders Jeppsson, Ari Mennander, Anders Wickbom, Igor Zindovic, Tomas Gudbjartsson

Food for thought from a retrospective non-randomized study on the Scandinavian experience with acute aortic dissection. The reader may find outcomes that will surpise them.

Source: JACC
Author(s): Katelyn M. Atkins, Bhupendra Rawal, Tafadzwa L. Chaunzwa, Nayan Lamba, Danielle S. Bitterman, Christopher L. Williams, David E. Kozono, Elizabeth H. Baldini, Aileen B. Chen, Paul L. Nguyen, Anthony V. D’Amico, Anju Nohria, Udo Hoffmann, Hugo J.W.L. Aerts, Raymond H. Mak

In this retrospective review of the effects of radiation dose to the heart on long-term outcomes, 748 patients with regionally advanced non–small cell lung cancer were studied.  An increasing cardiac radiotherapy dose was associated with an increased risk of MACE and all-cause mortality. This was observed primarily in patients without preexisting heart disease.

Source: The Washington Post
Author(s): Emily Langer

Leonard L. Bailey, a pediatric surgeon who attracted international attention in 1984 when he transplanted a baboon’s heart into a newborn human — “Baby Fae” — a medical moon shot that sparked breathless controversy but was credited with demonstrating the lifesaving potential of organ transplants for the tiniest patients, died May 12 at his home in Redlands, California. He was 76.

Source: News from around the web.
Author(s): Claire Vernon

Patient Care and General Interest

A new study looking a dietary protein sources and LDL cholesterol levels calls into question the idea that white meat is more heart healthy than red meat.

An expert consensus document on cardiogenic shock provides a standardized vocabulary for diagnosis and outlines best practices for treating patients.


Drugs and Devices

A US Food and Drug Administration panel recommended reclassifying surgical staplers to class II medical devices as the agency acknowledged a greater number of device malfunction reports than had been publicly disclosed.


Research, Trials, and Funding

The European Respiratory Society says that the strategy of tobacco harm reduction using e-cigarettes should not be used as a population-based approach for tobacco control, citing a lack of evidence that they reduce nicotine dependence and the potential for health risks that are not yet known.

In related news, researchers from the UK report that e-cigarettes improved rates of tobacco cessation, while researchers from the US find that e-cigarette flavorings have negative effects on endothelial cell function.

Researchers at Imperial College London in the UK have developed a small patch of stem cells that can be sewn to the heart, and in rabbits the patches integrated and improved heart function after experimental myocardial infarction.

Interim results from a trial on immune checkpoint inhibitors given before surgery to patients with resectable lung cancer suggest the treatment was well-tolerated and may provide benefit to these patients.