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Journal and News Scan

Source: JACC
Author(s): Andrea L. Axtell, Vijeta Bhambhani, Philicia Moonsamy, Emma W. Healy, Michael H. Picard, Thoralf M. Sundt III, Jason H. Wasfy

Retrospectively using a longitudinal echocardiography database, the authors analyzed the data of 3,276 patients with isolated severe tricuspids regurgitation (TR) from 2001 through 2016. Of these patients, 5% underwent tricuspid valve surgery. Within the group undergoing surgery, 84% of patients underwent a repair versus 16% who underwent a replacement. The authors found, in a propensity-matched sample, that there was no difference in long-term survival between patients treated medically versus surgically. In addition, there was no difference in survival between those undergoing repair versus replacement.

Source: Lung Cancer
Author(s): E.M.B.P. Reuling, C. Dickhoff, P.W. Plaisier, H.J. Bonjer, J.M.A. Daniels

A detailed and robust meta-analysis asserting lack of strong evidence supporting either modality.

Source: Health Affairs
Author(s): Muhammad Ali Chaudhary, Elzerie de Jager, Nizar Bhulani, Nicollette K. Kwon, Adil H. Haider, Eric Goralnick, Tracey Pérez Koehlmoos, Andrew J. Schoenfeld

The authors in this study ask—given the known racial disparities in the US healthcare system—what happens in a universal insurance program like TRICARE in terms of quality of care after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)? Using the TRICARE database, the authors retrospectively analyzed the postoperative care of CABG patients using National Quality Forum metrics. They found that there were no risk-adjusted differences in outcomes between black and white patients.

Of what relevance are the results of this study, in terms of the impact of universal health insurance, on access to quality care based on race?

Source: Innovations
Author(s): Calvin S.H. Ng, John K. MacDonald, Sebastien Gilbert, Ali Z. Khan, Young T. Kim, Brian E. Louie, M. Blair Marshall, Ricardo S. Santos, Marco Scarci, Yaron Shargal, Hiran C. Fernando

Ng and colleagues evaluated 145 studies in order to provide evidence-based statements on the optimal approach for lobectomy for non–small cell lung cancer, comparing thoracotomy, multiport video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), robotic VATS, and uniportal VATS. The authors considered which minimally invasive approach was associated with the best outcomes and fewest complications, which was optimal for lymph node evaluation, which was most compatible with required adjuvant therapy, and which approach most reduced pain and shortened the length of hospital stay compared to open techniques.

Source: Annals of Internal Medicine
Author(s): Isuru Ranasinghe, Clementine Labrosciano, Dennis Horton, Anand Ganesan, Jeptha P. Curtis, Harlan M. Krumholz, Andrew McGavigan, Sadia Hossain, Tracy Air, Saranya Hariharaputhiran

In this 5-year review covering multiple centers in Australia and New Zealand, the overall major complication rate related to new implanation of a pacemaker or ICD was 8.2%.  Among hospitals performing implants there was a 3-fold range in the incidence of complications, indicating important variations in care quality.

Source: Thoracic Surgery Residents Association
Author(s): Clauden Louis, Panos Vardas, Peter Chen, Jennifer Dixon, Parth B. Amin.

The Throacic Surgery Residents Association (TSRA) Decision Algorithms in Cardiothoracic Surgery is a 100-chapter compendium with an individual algorithm for clinical decisions spanning the entire scope of cardiothoracic surgery. The resource was developed for cardiothoracic surgery residents by residents and cardiothoraicc surgery faculty. The TSRA Decision Algorithms in Cardiothoracic Surgery is fresh off the press and available for purchase on Amazon -

Check out all the other resources available through the TSRA including, but not limited, to the following -

1. TSRA podcasts -

2. TSRA Pocket Mentor -

3. TSRA Intern Survival Guide -

4. TSRA Review of Cardiothoracic Surgery -

5. Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Primer -

6. TSRA Multiple Choice Review of Cardiothoracic Surgery -

7.  TSRA Primer of Cardiothoraicc Surgery -

8. TSRA Clinical Scenarios in Cardiothoracic Surgery -

9. TSRA Operative Dictations in Cardiothoracic Surgery -

10. Fighting Fatigue: A Guide for Cardiothoracic Surgery Residents -

And many more ... 

Source: Journal of International Medical Research
Author(s): Amer Harky, Rizwan Iqbal, Vincenzo Giordano, Ahmed Al-Adhami

In this brief review, the authors elaborate on status quo of the use of endovascular stent grafts in the management of patients with connective tissue disorders. Because the radial force and circumferential stress on the native aorta remains a signficant issue that leads to stent graft failure, open surgical repair remains the gold standard in most of such patients.

Source: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Emma C Hansson, Arnar Geirsson, Vibeke Hjortdal, Ari Mennander, Christian Olsson, Jarmo Gunn, Igor Zindovic, Anders Ahlsson, Shahab Nozohoor, Raphaelle A Chemtob, Aldina Pivodic, Tomas Gudbjartsson, Anders Jeppsson; on behalf of the NORCAAD Collaboration

Hansson and colleagues analyzed the effect of preoperative dual antiplatelet therapy on outcomes for patients undergoing surgery for acute aortic dissection type A. Among 1,141 patients with acute type A dissection, 108 had aspirin and clopidogrel, and 11 had aspirin and ticagrelor. Dual antiplatelet therapy led to more bleeding and more transfusions but not to more deaths. However, major bleeding was associated with higher mortality. The authors conclude that correct diagnosis is important to avoid dual antiplatelet therapy and reduce bleeding complications in patients with type A dissection.

Source: Innovations
Author(s): Bobby Yanagawa, Amine Mazine, Ismail El-Hamamsy

Yanagawa and colleagues review the current understanding of factors that predict the failure of aortic valve repair. They highlight factors that include unaddressed annular dilatation, residual cusp prolapse, commissural orientation, and the use of patch material, and they note that better understanding of these repair elements results in continually refined techniques that can improve patient outcomes.

Source: Nature
Author(s): Nenad Tomašev, Xavier Glorot, Jack W. Rae, Michal Zielinski, Harry Askham, Andre Saraiva, Anne Mottram, Clemens Meyer, Suman Ravuri, Ivan Protsyuk, Alistair Connell, Cían O. Hughes, Alan Karthikesalingam, Julien Cornebise, Hugh Montgomery, Geraint Rees, Chris Laing, Clifton R. Baker, Kelly Peterson, Ruth Reeves, Demis Hassabis, Dominic King, Mustafa Suleyman, Trevor Back, Christopher Nielson, Joseph R. Ledsam, Shakir Mohamed

Using deep learning employing data from over 700,000 patients (6 billion data points), an algorithm for continuous prediction of the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) was developed. The model correctly predicted over 90% of AKI requiring dialysis with a lead time of up to 48 hours, with 2 false alerts for every true alert.