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Journal and News Scan
In 148 patients with type A aortic dissection who underwent emergency total arch replacement, 155 had a conventional elephant trunk procedure (CET, age 65 ± 12 years) and 33 had a frozen elephant trunk procedure (FET, 67 ± 11 years). Early mortality was similar in the two groups (8.7% with CET versus 6.1% with FET). The FET group showed advantages of false lumen thrombosis and aortic remodeling at early follow-up examinations.
Five highlights in the CDC’s most recent Health, United States report, based on data from 1999 to 2017:
- Black patients were more than twice as likely as Asians or Pacific Islanders to die of heart disease in both 1999 and 2017.
- Non-Hispanic whites are the only demographic whose rate of cardiovascular disease declined over the 18-year period.
- Black adults aged 20 and up were by far the most likely group to have hypertension between 2015 and 2016.
- Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks were most likely to have diabetes and be obese in 2015 and 2016.
- Total cholesterol levels were relatively similar among all demographics between 2015 and 2016.
Rong and colleagues evaluated data from 6,550 adults aged 40 to 75 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III 1988 to 1994 who had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer and who were followed for an average of 18 years. They found that participants who never consumed breakfast had an 87% higher risk of cardiovascular disease-specific mortality than those who ate breakfast every day.
The American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS), American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Society of Echocardiography (ASE), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI), and Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) published a joint expert consensus and evidence-based recommendations for systems of care related to valvular heart disease with respect to patient outcomes, cost, and cost-effectiveness.
At the Charing Cross Symposium, held April 15 to 18 in London, UK, Professor Fabio Verzini presented the 30-day data from Medtronic's Valiant Navion investigational device exemption study of 100 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. This study showed low rates of perioperative mortality at 2.0% and secondary procedures at 2.0%. The rate of type Ia endoleaks was 1.1% at imaging follow-up after one month.
In this study, researchers from Spain have found that the longitudinal strain of the proximal aorta, as detected by cardiac magnetic resonance, is a risk factor for aortic root dilation rate and aortic events (hazard ratio 1.290, 95% confidence interval 1.123 - 1.481, P<0.001) in patients with Marfan syndrome.
Transcatheter aortic valve is usually implanted via transfemoral or transapical access. Reents and colleagues sought to compare the safety of these two access routes, using a retrospective analysis of their experience. Among more than 1,000 patients, the risk-adjusted short- and long-term mortality and major morbidity rates were similar for both approaches. The authors found that mortality was associated with the risk profile and the institutional experience but not with the access mode itself.
Fukui and colleagues retrospectively compared outcomes for patients who were either smokers (410 patients) or never smokers (256 patients) and who underwent resection for primary lung cancer (stage I to III). The authors evaluated 90-day mortality and respiratory complications, both of which were higher for smokers than for never smokers. Smoking cessation mitigated the increased likelihood of pulmonary complications for smokers, and the odds ratios for complications compared to never smoking patients were lowest for those patients with the longest interval of preoperative smoking cessation (more than 12 months). The authors conclude that smoking cessation is always valuable for lung cancer surgery, but that longer periods of time are more efficacious for reducing pulmonary complications.
Cardiothoracic surgeons in the US were the most underpaid specialty, calculated according to undervalued work based on RVUs in comparison to data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.