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Journal and News Scan

Source: News from around the web.
Author(s): Claire Vernon

Patient Care and General Interest

Air pollution tops the World Health Organization’s list of Top 10 threats to global health.

A US woman had an aortic dissection while simultaneously going into premature labor, requiring emergency coordination of two procedures.

An Indian man receives a heart transplant, with the cost of the procedure covered by the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister’s comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme.


Drugs and Devices

Abbott receives US Food and Drug Administration approval for a tiny patent ductus arteriosus occlusion device for premature infants, and it also acquires Cephea Valve Technologies, a company that develops transcatheter mitral valve technologies.


Research, Trials, and Funding

Providing vouchers to reduce the cost of antiplatelet therapy after a heart attack only marginally improved adherence and did not affect outcomes, report researchers from Durham, North Carolina.

Patients reap postoperative benefits from quitting smoking before lung cancer surgery, say researchers from Tokyo, Japan.

Researchers from New Hampshire, US, report on the growth of medical marketing in the US over last two decades.

Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Author(s): Tirone E. David, Maral Ouzounian, Carolyn M. David, Myriam Lafreniere-Roula, Cedric Manlhiot

David and colleagues prospectively examined long-term results of the Ross procedure, following a cohort of 212 patients over a median 18.0 years (interquartile range, 14.6-21.2). They report 10.8% cumulative mortality and 16.8% cumulative probability of Ross-related reoperations at 20 years. Postoperative aortic insufficiency increased with time and was associated with the presence of preoperative aortic insufficiency. The authors conclude that the Ross procedure should be part of the surgical armamentarium for treating aortic stenosis in young adults.

Source: The New England Journal of Medicine
Author(s): Christophe Mariette, Sheraz R. Markar, Tienhan S. Dabakuyo-Yonli, Bernard Meunier, Denis Pezet, Denis Collet, Xavier B. D’Journo, Cécile Brigand, Thierry Perniceni, Nicolas Carrère, Jean-Yves Mabrut, Simon Msika, Frédérique Peschaud, Michel Prudhomme, Franck Bonnetain, Guillaume Piessen, for the Fédération de Recherche en Chirurgie (FRENCH) and French Eso-Gastric Tumors (FREGAT) Working Group

Mariette and colleagues randomly assigned 207 patients with resectable esophageal cancer to undergo either transthoracic open esophagectomy or hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy. The hybrid procedure resulted in a lower incidence of major intraoperative or postoperative complications (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 – 0.55; p<0.001). Both groups had similar survival over three years.

A summary of the article is available on MedPage Today.

Source: Circulation Research
Author(s): Thomas R. Cimato, John M. Canty Jr

A good attempt to shed some light into the somewhat challenging concept of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, on the occasion of a small randomized controlled trial on albuterol.

Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Author(s): Mark Helmers, Pavan Atluri

A succinct handy comment on a small series of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) that is quite useful for a fast read on LVAD for surgeons and nonsurgeons.

Source: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Miguel Sousa-Uva, Franz-Josef Neumann, Anders Ahlsson, Fernando Alfonso, Adrian P Banning, Umberto Benedetto, Robert A Byrne, Jean-Philippe Collet, Volkmar Falk, Stuart J Head, Peter Jüni, Adnan Kastrati, Akos Koller, Steen D Kristensen, Josef Niebauer, Dimitrios J Richter, Petar M Seferović, Dirk Sibbing, Giulio G Stefanini, Stephan Windecker, Rashmi Yadav, Michael O Zembala, ESC Scientific Document Group

The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and the European Society of Cardiology have, for the third time, brought together cardiac surgeons and cardiologists to draft a document on the treatment of coronary heart disease. These guidelines provide new information and recommendations on calculation of the Syntax score, radial access as standard approach for coronary angiography, drug-eluting stents for any percutaneous coronary intervention, preferred surgical myocardial revascularisation if left ventricular ejection fraction is less than 35%, among other updates.

Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Author(s): Chizitam Ibezim, Amber Leila Sarvestani, Jessica H. Knight, Omar Qayum, Noor Alshami, Elizabeth Turk, James St. Louis, Courtney McCracken, James H. Moller, Lazaros Kochilas, Geetha Raghuveer

Ibezim and colleagues examined outcomes for patients undergoing their first mechanical mitral valve replacement (M-MVR) before 21 years of age. Using information from the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium database, the authors performed a retrospective analysis of 441 children from 36 centers in the United States. Nearly 60% of patients were less than 6 years old when they underwent their first M-MVR, and the most common diagnoses were complete and partial atrioventricular canal defects. Mortality within 90 days was 11.1%, and 76% of patients who survived more than 90 days were still alive and transplant-free after 20 years. Early risk factors were age younger than 2 years and concurrent mechanical valve replacement of another valve.

Source: The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Author(s): Thomas Schroeter, Maximilian Vondran, Mahmoud Sleiman Wehbe, Meinhard Mende, Matthias Sauer, Muhammed Ikbal Aydin, Farhad Bakhtiary, Friedrich Wilhelm Mohr

Schroeter and colleagues sought to determine the influence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) on perioperative outcomes after cardiac surgery, given the increasing incidence of cardiac surgery in patients with PD. They performed a retrospective analysis of 130 matched patient pairs who underwent surgery from 2001 to 2013. The authors found similar outcomes for patients with and without PD, including similar 30-day and overall all-cause mortality.

Source: News from around the web.
Author(s): Claire Vernon

Patient Care and General Interest

Ireland’s Cabinet is expected to consider opt-out organ donation legislation this spring.

A veterinarian in Colorado, USA, discusses the potential for learning about novel interventional cardiology devices by studying their use in veterinary medicine.

The US Congenital Heart Futures Reauthorization Act, which increases the federal funding available for studying congenital heart disease, was signed into law at the end of 2018.


Drugs and Devices

Pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 therapy from Merck, received three new approvals for use in advanced non-small cell lung cancer from the Japan Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency.

Boston Scientific has acquired the company Millipede, adding the investigational IRIS Transcatheter Annuloplasty Ring System for mitral regurgitation to its line of products.


Research, Trials, and Funding

Researchers from California, USA, found that cardiac surgery and cardiac catheterization are associated with similar levels of cognitive decline.

Researchers from Switzerland reported encouraging midterm outcomes from the TriValve Registry of transcatheter interventions for tricuspid regurgitation.

An inhalable formulation of messenger RNA was developed by researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA, who postulate that it could contribute to new therapies for diseases like cystic fibrosis.

Source: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Author(s): Catalin Loghin, Andrei Loghin

Loghin and Loghin detail the intricacies of imaging modalities available for the assessment of patients in the era of novel mitral technologies. They include a description of functional mitral valve anatomy and discuss the multimodel approach to evaluation of patients undergoing implantation of transcatheter devices.